For more information and ideas on how to teach number sense, see the resources below:




How Children Learn Number Concepts: A Guide to the Critical Learning Phases by Kathy Richardson (2012)


Fluency through Flexibility: How to Build Number Sense Numbers 0-20 by Christina Tondevold (2014)


Learning to Think Mathematically With the Number Line, K-5 by Jeffrey Frykholm, PhD (2010)


Learning to Think Mathematically With the Rekenrek by Jeffrey Frykholm, PhD (2008)


Mastering the MathRack to Build Mathematical Minds by Christina Tondevold ((2011)


Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally by John A. Van De Walle (2004, 2010)


Developing Number Knowledge: Assessment, Teaching & Intervention with
7-11-Year-Olds by Wright, Ellemor-Collins, and Tabor (2012)


Teaching Number in the Classroom with 4-8 year-olds by Wright, Stanger, Stafford, and Martland (2006)


Teaching Number: Advancing Children’s Skills and Strategies by Wright, Martland, Stafford, and Stanger (2006)


Early Numeracy: Assessment for Teaching and Interventions by Wright, Martland, and Stanford (2006)


Young Mathematicians at Work: Constructing Number Sense, Addition, and Subtraction by Catherine Twomey Fosnot and Maarten Dolk (2001)


How the Brain Learns Mathematics by David A. Sousa (2008)




National Council of Teachers of Mathematics at

Illuminations: Resources for Teaching Math by NCTM at

U.S. Math Recovery Council at

Kentucky Center for Mathematics at

Mad Maths Minute: A Numeracy Wiki for 5 to 8 year olds

Math Teaching Resources for K-5 Classrooms

K-5 Math Teaching Resources (empty number lines)

Teaching the Empty Number Line by Associate Professor Janette Bobis

Kagan Cooperative Learning